Jumat, 29 Juli 2011

Lore Lindu National Park, Bada Valley Megaliths & Primitive Villages of Central Sulawesi


Central Sulawesi is a part of Indonesia Provinces. Many things that you can do in this remote place. You can planning a weeks visit to Lore Lindu National Park for a trekking purposes to see megalith Stone Culture in Bada Valley, Besoa Valley and Napu Valleys.

Lore Lindu National Park is a forested protected area on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi, in the province of Central Sulawesi. The area of the national park is 2,180 km² covering both lowland and montane forests.
It provides habitat to numerous rare species, including 77 bird species endemic to Sulawesi. The national park is designated as part of the UNESCO World Network of Biosphere Reserves. In addition to its rich wildlife, the park also contains megaliths dating from before 1300 AD.

Geography and climate
The boundaries of the park are defined by the Palolo Valley to the north, Napu Valley to the east and Bada Valley to the south. The western boundary is formed by a series of narrow valleys, known collectively as the Kulawi Valley. The Palolo, Napu, Lindu and Besoa Valleys were once lakes, now partially filled with sediment. Lake Lindu (Danau Lindu) is the only large lake remaining today. The altitude ranges from 200 to 2,355 m above sea-level.
Flora and fauna
The park provides habitat to the Tonkean Macaque, endemic to Sulawesi
Lore Lindu National Park stretches over multiple ecosystem types, including lowland tropical forest, sub-montane forest, montane forest, as well as sub-alpine forest at altitudes over 2,000 metres (6,600 ft).
Plant species include Eucalyptus deglupta, Pterospermum celebicum, Cananga odorata, Gnetum gnemon, Castanopsis argentea, Agathis philippinensis, Phyllocladus hypophyllus, medicinal plants, and rattans.
Endemic mammals include the Tonkean Macaque (Macaca tonkeana tonkeana), North Sulawesi babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa celebensis), Pygmy Tarsier (Tarsius pumilus), Dian’s Tarsier (Tarsius dianae), Sulawesi Bear Cuscus (Ailurops ursinus furvus), Sulawesi Dwarf Cuscus (Strigocuscus celebensis callenfelsi) and Sulawesi rat (Rattus celebensis). Endemic birds include the Maleo fowl (Macrocephalon maleo), Sulawesi Palm Civet (Macrogalidia musschenbroekii musschenbroekii). Reptiles and amphibians include the gold snake (Elaphe erythrura and E. janseni) and Sulawesian Toad (Bufo celebensis). The Xenopoecilus sarasinorum fish is endemic to Lake Lindu.

Megaliths
There are over 400 granite megaliths in the area, of which about 30 represent human forms. They vary in size from a few centimetres to ca.4.5 metres (15 ft). The original purpose of the megaliths is unknown.[6] Other megaliths are in form of large pots (Kalamba) and stone plates (Tutu’na). Various archaeological studies have dated the carvings from between 3000 BC to 1300 AD.
Human habitation
Surrounding the park there are 117 villages, from which 62 are located on the borders of the park and one is within the park. The local population belongs to the Kaili, Kulavi and Lore ethnic groups. There are also migrants from South Sulawesi, Java and Bali.

Conservation and threats
Lore Lindu has been declared a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve in 1978. The national park was formed through the amalgamation of three existing reserves: the Lore Kalamanta Nature Reserve, the Lake Lindu Recreation and Protection Forest, and the Lore Lindu Wildlife Reserve. While in 1982 an area of 2,310 km² has been “declared” for the national park, when the park has been officially designated in 1999, its size was reduced to 2,180 km².
Deforestation as result of illegal logging and land encroachment for agricultural activities is one of the main threats to the park. Management challenges include lack of awareness of the importance of forest preservation and lack of law enforcement.

Since 2000, the Indonesian-German Collaborative Research Center “STORMA” (Stability of the Rainforest Margin in Indonesia) is intensively investigating Lore Lindu National Park and its buffer zone. STORMA’s analysis of the effect of environmental protection on the level of deforestation in the park, suggests a reduction of the deforestation rate of around 9% as result of the protected areas status of the park. This estimate was based on a methodology involving propensity score matching rather than the conventional satellite image comparison

The climate is tropical with high humidity. Temperatures vary only a few degrees over the course of the year, between 26°C–32°C in lowland areas. The temperature drops in the highland areas about 6°C (11°F) with every 1,100 metres (3,600 ft) rise in altitude. The heaviest rain period occurs during the monsoon which lasts from November to April.
For those who want to have an experinces to Morowali Reserves and the Togian Islands also available to start after Lore Lindu Trip. In Lore Lindu National Park we can also do a Lore Lindu birdwatching for searching the Geomalia, Diabolical Nightjars, Great shortwings, Olive Flanke

BADA VALLEY TREKKING
Bada Valley turned out to be my next destination but it was not planned. I was now in Tentana at the north side of Lake Poso. The idea was to continue to Palu. I met an American guy: Steve. We investigated the possibilities. It seems there was a bus but it would only leave in a few days. The missionaries had a small plane to Bada Valley and it should not be a problem to join them. Unfortunately that plane would leave also in a few days.
Lore Lindu National Park is one of Sulawesi’s biological refuges. It contains large ares of relatively untouched terrain and varied habitats which include lowland and montane forests, elfin woodlands, fertile, valleys, lakes and hot springs.

The combination of towering rainforests, rugged scenery, fresh mountain streams and turbulent rivers, unique wildlife, lichen covered megaliths s and a rich variety of culture make Lore Lindu National Park an alluring place for modern-day tourists and scientists.
The rugged interior of the park is home to Sulawesi’s largests native animals: the mountain anoa, phyton, deer, two species of tarsier, tonkeana macaques, and Sulawesi’s largest mammalian carnivore, the Sulawesi civet. That park holds at least 5 species squirrel and 31 of its 38 rat species are endemic.
There are at least 55 species of bats, and more than 230 birds, including the maleo , red-knobbed hornbill, and the sulawesi dwarft hornbill. The larger red-knobbed hornbill, locally known as allo, is probably the most obvious bird in the park, with its slow, noisy flight.
Thousand of weird and wonderful insect species can be seen around the park, in particular there are many eye-catching species of butterfly, seen as the fly along watercourses, or drink from puddles and mud banks.


Megalithic statues dot the Napu, Besoa and Bada valley
Alleys, they are hundreds of years old and are considered to be the finest stone monuments of their type in Indonesia. There are five categories classified by shape :
1. Megaliths : these statues have human features, but only the face, shoulders and genetalia are usually distinct;
2. Kalamba : these are stones urns, most probably sarcophagi associated with the burial of nobility;
3. Tutu’na : these are large stone disks, probably the lids of kalamba;
4. Batu Dakon : these are flat or convex stones with channels, irregular pitting and other depressions;
5. Others : include stone mortars, house supports and range of other shapes.
As with all reserves in Sulawesi, a permit should be obtained from the Balai Taman Nasional Office in Palu before visiting the park. Information on treks and guides can also be obtained here.

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